A set of software programmed into a chip that is used to operate a specific hardware subsystem or configure a computer's hardware prior to it loading an operating system. Most firmware is updatable through software, but sometimes the chip itself must be replaced with one containing updated firmware. Devices such as motherboards, video cards and disk controllers often have their own firmware, which can usually be updated via special software from the device manufacturer. Two common types of firmware in PCs are BIOS and UEFI.

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